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Hydraulic turbines can be divided into impact turbines and impact turbines according to their working principles. The runner of the impact turbine is rotated by the impact of the water flow. The pressure of the water flow during the work is unchanged, mainly due to the conversion of kinetic energy. The runner of the impact turbine is rotated by the reaction force of the water in the water. Both energy and kinetic energy change, but mainly the conversion of pressure energy. The following China Francis Turbine Supplier will introduce you in detail.
Percussion turbines can be divided into two types according to the direction of the water flow: cut-type (also known as bucket type) and oblique type. The structure of the oblique impact turbine is basically the same as that of the bucket turbine, except that the jet direction has an inclination and is only used for small units.
Impact turbines can be divided into mixed flow, axial flow, diagonal flow and cross flow. Francis turbine is the most widely used turbine in the world. It was invented by American engineer Francis in 1849, so it is also called Francis Turbine. Compared with the axial-flow propeller type, its structure is simpler, the operation is stable, and the highest efficiency is higher than the axial-flow type. However, when the head and load change are large, the average efficiency is lower than that of the axial-flow propeller type. Some of the highest efficiency has exceeded 95%. Mixed-flow turbines have a wide range of heads, ranging from 5 to 700 meters, but the most widely used are 40 to 300 meters.
Mixed flow runners are generally made of low-carbon steel or low-alloy steel castings or cast-welded structures. In order to improve the anti-cavitation and anti-sand wear performance, stainless steel can be deposited on cavitation-prone parts, or stainless steel blades, and sometimes the entire runner can be stainless steel. The use of a cast-welded structure can reduce costs, make the runner size more accurate, and the runner surface smoother, which is conducive to improving the efficiency of the turbine. It is also possible to use different materials to make the blades, upper crown and lower ring.
In mixed-flow turbines, the water flows radially into the water guiding mechanism and flows out of the runner axially; in axial-flow turbines, the water flows radially into the guide vanes and axially enters and leaves the runner; in diagonal flow turbines, the water flows Radially enter the guide vane and flow into the runner in a direction inclined to the main shaft, or flow into the guide vane and runner in a direction inclined to the main shaft; in a cross flow turbine, water flows into the guide vane in the axial direction And runner. Axial flow, cross flow and diagonal flow turbines can be further divided into fixed and rotary paddles according to their structure. Fixed paddle type runner blades are fixed; paddle type runner blades can be rotated around the blade axis during operation to adapt to changes in head and load. Axial flow turbines are suitable for power stations with lower heads. At the same head, its specific revolution is higher than that of the mixed flow turbine.
The blades of the axial-flow fixed-paddle turbine are fixed on the runner body. The general installation height is 3-50m. The blade placement angle cannot be changed during operation, the structure is simple, and the efficiency is low. It is suitable for power stations with small load changes or by adjusting the number of generating units to adapt to load changes.
Axial-flow propeller turbine was invented by Austrian engineer Kaplan in 1920, so it is also called Kaplan Turbine. The general installation height is 3-80m. The runner blade is generally operated by an oil pressure relay installed in the runner body, which can be rotated according to the change in water head and load to maintain the optimal cooperation between the movable guide blade angle and the blade angle, thereby improving the average efficiency. The highest efficiency of hydraulic turbines has exceeded 94%.
Water turbine is a power machine that converts the energy of water flow into rotating mechanical energy. It belongs to turbine machinery in fluid machinery. The turbine part of the bulb tubular turbine unit consists of a runner room, Guide Vane mechanism, runner, and tailpipe. The generator shaft is directly connected to the runner and is installed on the steel bulb housing. The wheel is at the rear end of the bulb. The generator bearing is fixed on the bulb housing through a bearing support ring. The runner end bearing is fixed on the bulb end housing. The front end of the generator shaft is connected to the motor slip ring and the oil circuit device of the rotor pitch control . The steel light bulb is fixed in the concrete foundation through the upper and lower pillars, and the upper pillar is also a passage for people to enter and exit the bulb. After the water flow enters, it evenly passes around the bulb to reach the runner, and the runner is driven to rotate to do work and then discharged from the tailpipe. It is suitable for low-head large and medium-sized hydropower stations.
The runner chamber refers to the connection between the bottom ring and the draft tube in the axial flow and diagonal flow turbine to form a hydraulic channel, and to form a proper gap with the outer edge of the runner blade. The runner room is prone to cavitation problems during operation, and there are hidden dangers that threaten the safe and stable operation of the power plant. What causes cavitation in the turbine runner chamber? How should we respond? Let the Hydraulic Turbine Generator Supplier tell everyone about it.
1. What causes cavitation in the turbine runner chamber?
The runner and blade of the hydropower station are made of stainless steel, and the main material of the runner chamber is Q235, which has poor toughness and anti-cavitation performance. Due to the limited amount of water stored in the reservoir and long-term operation at ultra-high design heads, a large amount of air bubbles appeared in the tail water. During operation, the pressure of the water flow in the turbine flow process was lower than the vaporization pressure zone, and the water passing through the blade gap was evaporated Boiling produces vapor bubbles, generates local impact pressure, and produces periodic impact and water hammer pressure on the metal, subjecting the metal surface to repeated impact loads, causing material damage and causing metal crystals to cavitate and fall off. Cavitation occurs repeatedly in the runner chamber with the blades in and out of the water. Therefore, under long-time super-high head operation, cavitation gradually occurs and deepens continuously.
2. How to fix the cavitation problem in the turbine runner chamber?
Case of cavitation in the turbine runner chamber: Since the turbine chamber of a hydropower station's cross-flow turbine unit has been put into operation, the cavitation problem has occurred in the runner chamber at the inlet and outlet sides of the same blade, forming a width of 200mm and a depth of 1-6m. The unequal cavities show cavitation bands all around the perimeter, especially in the upper part of the runner chamber. The cavitation depth is 10-20mm.
Technology and process of cavitation repair in the turbine runner chamber: With the excellent performance of the material and targeted repair process, Soleil carbon nano-polymer material repair technology has achieved good application results in the cavitation repair of the turbine runner chamber. The whole repair process is also relatively simple: dismantling the runner room, checking the cavitation situation in the runner room-surface degreasing treatment, shaving off the cavitation layer with carbon arc gouging, removing loose metal layers-sandblasting and rusting on the surface- -Special primer for brushing--Sorley carbon nano-polymer material is blended to the proportion, and the material is applied to the part to be repaired, and it is scraped along with the reference ruler. The material is cured, and the repair size can be checked to complete the repair.
Francis Turbine is a type of impact turbine. It was invented by the American engineer Francis in 1849, also known as Francis Turbine, or radial flow turbine. The water flows radially into the runner from all sides, and then flows out of the runner approximately axially. The runner consists of an upper crown, a lower ring and a blade. In recent years, the development trend is high head, large capacity, high specific speed and high efficiency. Below is a brief overview of the characteristics of Francis turbines from the Hydraulic Turbine Generator Supplier.
The mixed flow turbine has a compact structure, high efficiency, and can adapt to a wide range of heads. It is one of the water turbine models widely used in countries around the world. When the water flow passes through the working wheel of this turbine, it enters in the radial direction and flows out in the axial direction, so it is also called radial axial flow turbine. It is suitable for water heads ranging from 20 meters to 700 meters. The mechanism is simple, the operation is stable, and the efficiency is high, but it is generally used in the middle water head range (50 meters to 400 meters). The output of a single machine ranges from tens of kilowatts to hundreds of thousands of kilowatts. At present, the maximum output of this turbine has exceeded 700,000 kilowatts. It is one of the most widely used turbines. The 700 MW unit with a single capacity in
Composition of Francis turbine:
The structure of the Francis turbine is simple. The main components include a volute, a seat ring, a water guide mechanism, a top cover, a runner, a main shaft, a guide bearing (see the turbine guide bearing), a bottom ring and a draft tube. The snail shell is generally made of metal material and has a circular cross section. The seat ring is placed between the volute and the guide vane, and consists of an upper ring, a lower ring, and a number of uprights, which are directly connected to the volute; the uprights are wing-shaped and cannot rotate, and are also called fixed guide vanes. The water guiding mechanism is composed of moving guide vanes, speed control ring, arm, connecting rod and other components. The runner is directly connected to the main shaft (see the main shaft of the hydraulic turbine). It is a rotating part of this type of turbine. The runner is composed of an upper crown, a lower ring, a drain cone and a number of fixed blades. The head used varies. The draft tube is a hydraulic turbine drainage component that directs the water flow from the outlet of the runner to the downstream. It is generally elbow-shaped. Small-scale turbines often use a straight cone draft tube.
The above is the relevant information about Francis Turbine introduced by China Francis Turbine Supplier. I hope it can help everyone.
Sediment is an important issue for hydropower stations. It not only wears and damages the power plant unit components, but also reduces the unit efficiency, and ultimately affects the power generation capacity of the power plant. Failure to restore it through thorough repairs will lead to increased power station operation and maintenance costs.
In recent years, a large number of laboratory and field tests have been conducted on the mechanism of silt abrasion at home and abroad, and various technical measures to prevent silt abrasion of hydraulic turbines. A lot of results have been achieved. Some Hydraulic Turbine Generator China on the Yellow River in China have also accumulated successful experience in repair welding and repairing of runners, and overcoating of non-metallic materials with resistance to mud and abrasion of runner blades. However, the problems in the sand and sand wear field of hydraulic turbines are still very large, and further research is needed, especially to eradicate the serious hazards caused by sand and sand wear and tear to the operation of hydraulic turbines. It is necessary to improve the The anti-wear performance of hydraulic turbines working in water flows, the development of metal and non-metal materials with high resistance to mud and sand wear, and other comprehensive technical measures can be used to achieve this goal.
Pelton Turbine Generator
Hazards of water turbine cavitation:
The damage of hydro-cavity to the hydropower station is relatively large, it will not only affect the normal operation of the unit, but also reduce the operating life of the unit. It mainly causes damage to the turbine's over-current components, Casting Guide Vane, runners, tailpipes, etc.
Because cavitation will disturb the normal operation of the water flow and energy conversion, increasing the leakage and hydraulic loss of the water flow will directly reduce the output and efficiency of the turbine. Once severe cavitation occurs, it will cause strong vibration, noise, The fluctuation of output caused the unsafe operation of the unit, which increased the frequency and complexity of the unit's maintenance. At the same time, the cavitation and cavitation maintenance not only increased the consumption of steel, but also increased the construction period, which had a serious impact on power production.
Destructive effects of water turbine cavitation:
Cavitation is mainly the erosion of the surface of metal materials. It includes three functions: mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical. Polymer elastic and rigid wear-resistant materials are based on silicon steel alloy and mixed with alumina silicon carbide and other components. Shore 85 hardness, flexible silicon carbide repair material has the lack of concession that metal lacks. It can effectively resist cavitation and sediment erosion and protect the impeller body. The original state of the silicon carbide repair material is paste. Filling and repairing of various shapes can be done at will. The smooth and flat surface after repairing can significantly improve the efficiency of the turbine, avoid thermal deformation caused by welding and make the turbine run more smoothly. The repair time of a single turbine can be completed in one day. The material can triple the life of the turbine blade, and the normal temperature operation during the repair process avoids thermal stress caused by welding.
The above is the relevant introduction about the repair of turbine wear.
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Turbines and auxiliary equipment are important hydropower equipment and an indispensable part of the hydropower industry. In a hydropower station, the water in the upstream reservoir is directed to the turbine through a water diversion pipe, which drives the turbine runner to rotate and drives the generator to generate electricity. The finished water is discharged downstream through the tailpipe. The higher the head and the greater the flow, the greater the output of the turbine.
The large shaft sealing device of the hydraulic turbine is an important part of the structure of the hydraulic turbine. The large shaft packing seal room is worn and the packing is worn. The leakage of water causes the bearings and thrust bearings to burn and even to be scrapped. The performance of the large shaft packing seal chamber directly endangers the safe operation of the unit, and the problems such as whether the large shaft is worn and whether the packing is damaged are particularly important. Packing can be replaced, but the problem of large shaft sealing surface wear is a huge problem for existing enterprises. So how should we respond? Hydraulic Turbine Generator Supplier will come to tell you.
First, the condition of the wear repair process of the turbine shaft seal chamber
1. The worn parts of the sealing surface of the big shaft seal are welded or machined after welding with the same material. This repair method not only needs to control the temperature and current, but also needs to be inspected after welding to prevent hidden cracks. In short, the repair time is long, the process is complicated, and the cost is high. It is difficult to control the repair size and accuracy if it is repaired on site.
2. Plane the large shaft sealing bushing with a gouger and replace it with a new bushing. This method is difficult to replace on-site, and the unit needs to be disassembled and returned to the factory, which takes a long time and costs.
3. On-site repair of Soleil carbon nano-polymer materials is not only short in time and low in cost, but also highly accurate and free from thermal stress, and it does not require disassembly of the unit.
Second, Suo Lei carbon nano-polymer material for the repair of the turbine shaft sealing chamber wear repair process
1. Do the preparatory work, that is, the selection of Soray materials, the preparation of related tools and personnel, etc .;
2. The preliminary cleaning of the sealing surface will remove water stains and scales on the surface, and remove high points, burrs, rust layers, etc .;
3. Combined with the abrasion of the abrasion seal surface of the large shaft, local treatment is required according to the repair tooling requirements;
4. Use absolute ethanol to clean the repaired surface to ensure no dirt and dry;
5. Calculate the amount of material according to the site wear depth;
6. Harmonize Soray carbon nano-polymer material according to the proportion, and fully colorless;
7. Quickly apply the tuned material to the repair surface: the first layer is repeatedly scraped to ensure that the material is fully bonded to the metal substrate, and then evenly applied to the entire surface of the journal, the thickness of the application is slightly greater than the amount of unilateral wear;
8. Material curing: When the ambient temperature is 24 ℃, it is recommended that the material curing time is not less than 6 hours; when the ambient temperature is below 24 ℃, it is recommended to use a heating tool to keep the material temperature 60-80 ℃ for not less than 4 hours. Do not directly heat the flame material;
9. After the material is fixed, remove excess material from other parts. Use the corresponding workpiece grinding to restore the original sealing surface size.
The above are the reasons and solutions for the wear of the large shaft sealing chamber of the turbine introduced by the supplier of Francis Turbine. I hope to help everyone.
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China Cutting Torch Manufacturers share with you.
④Suitable for thin plate welding, all-position welding Even with a small current of several amps, tungsten argon arc can still burn stably, and the heat is relatively concentrated, so it can weld 0.3 mm thin plates; pulsed tungsten argon arc welding It can also perform all-position welding and single-sided welding without padding and double-sided welding.
⑤ The welding process is easy to automate. The arc of tungsten arc welding is open arc. The welding process parameters are stable and easy to detect and control. It is an ideal automation and even robotic welding method.
⑥ No slag in the welding area Welders can clearly see the forming process of the molten pool and weld.
Tungsten arc welding has the following disadvantages:
① Poor wind resistance Tungsten arc welding uses gas for protection, and its ability to resist lateral wind is poor. When the side wind is small, the protection effect can be ensured by reducing the distance from the nozzle to the workpiece and increasing the protective gas flow; when the side wind is large, wind prevention measures must be taken.
② High requirements for workpiece cleaning. Because inert gas is used for protection, there is no metallurgical deoxidation or dehydrogenation. In order to avoid defects such as pores and cracks, oil contamination and rust on the workpiece must be removed strictly before welding.
③ Low productivity Due to the limited current carrying capacity of tungsten electrodes, especially the allowable current of tungsten electrodes in AC welding is lower, which results in lower penetration capacity of tungsten electrode argon arc welding, lower welding speed and lower welding productivity.
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The power tool industry uses a specialized terminology system to organize and name abrasive wheels and cutting wheels. As with most other power tool accessories, there are many types and styles of grinding wheels to choose from for different applications, and most of these types and styles are only separated by small changes in materials and design characteristics.
Cutting wheels and grinding wheels are customized for their work by measuring the combination of grinding wheel size, abrasive material, abrasive, hardness, bonding material and grinding wheel type. Each of these grinding wheel design features will be described below to provide shoppers with the information they need to quickly match compatible grinding wheels with their tools and applications.
Grinding wheels measurement When buying a grinding wheel, it is important to consider some measurements and specifications.
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This measurement part determines the compatibility of the wheel with the tool. For cup wheels, measure the maximum diameter on the wheel.
Also used for matching tool compatibility.
Helps to match tool compatibility and applications. For example, the cutting wheel is thinner than the grinding wheel.
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The maximum speed specification tells the user the maximum speed, it is safe to operate each unique wheel.
Color-coded application system Most manufacturers follow the industry color-coded marking system, which marks the intended application material for each grinding wheel.
This color code is usually located on the wheel label printed with the ANSI marking system name. Sometimes, the entire box containing the ANSI name is colored in the corresponding application color, and sometimes only the text of the ANSI name matches the corresponding color.
The power tool industry also uses the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) marking system to identify the type and specifications of materials used to produce grinding wheels. The ANSI marking system is a shorthand naming system that transmits a lot of information about grinding wheels in a short space. The naming system includes four aspects of information:
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4. The type of adhesive material used.
The above information is provided by cutting wheels manufacturer.